Margaret Ann Bulkley:The extraordinary Doctor James Barry

Portrait of Dr James Barry painted 1813 – 1816. Image: Wikipedia.

In July 1865  a char woman named Sophia Bishop was asked to lay out the body of an eminent physician. The place was London and Doctor James Barry, who had attained the rank of Inspector General of Military Hospitals, the highest medical rank in the British Army, had died of dysentery. Sophia Bishop went about preparing the body and discovered that  Dr. James Barry was in fact a ‘whole woman’  and had stretch marks on her body indicating that she had even borne a child. Sophia did not disclose the information until after the funeral. The story grabbed the headlines for a time, but there was no conclusive evidence as there had not been a post-mortem.  Interestingly for someone of such a high military rank, and who had given 50 years of loyal and distinguished service, no obituary was ever published. Furthermore, the embarrassed British Military placed an embargo on Dr Barry’s military record for 100 years.

Dr. James Barry was born Margaret Ann Bulkley in County Cork in the closing years of the 18th century. Her mother was the sister of James Barry a renowned artist and member of the Royal Academy in London, her father Jeremiah was a grocer.  Margaret was a bright child who had expressed a wish to become a doctor, but at that time women were barred from medical school.

Margaret’s uncle James Barry had influential friends, one of whom was General Francisco de Miranda from Venezuela. Another friend, David Stuart Erskine, 11th Earl of Buchan, was an avid supporter of the education of women. It is thought that General Miranda and Erskine were part of a group that hatched up a plan for Margaret to enter medical school disguised as a man. After qualifying she would be free to go to Venezuela to practice as a female doctor.

And so, James Miranda Stuart Barry entered the school of medicine at Edinburgh University in 1809 at the age of 14. The plan to go to Venezuela faltered when General Miranda was imprisoned by the Spanish, and ended with his death in prison in 1816.

Dr James Barry  at some stage decided to continue in a male role and joined the British Army medical corps.  He was posted to the Cape of Good Hope where he befriended the Governor, Lord Charles Somerset (1767 – 1831). It is possible that Somerset was aware of Dr Barry’s true identity as he too was a friend of  the Earl of Buchan.  The Governor set Barry up in private apartments at his residence.  Soon rumours began to circulate that Dr Barry and Lord Charles had an ‘unnaturally close’ relationship. The rumours of a homosexual liaison reached London and a royal commission was set up to investigate the scandal. Somerset returned to England and Barry was later exonerated.

Dr Barry  had a distinctive high-pitched voice, wore three-inch high inserts in his shoes to increase his height from 5 feet. He wore oversized clothing. He was known to be  prickly and difficult and was fiercely defensive if accused of being effeminate or if his high-pitched voice was commented upon.  He is known to have fought duels in defence of his honour, having been injured in one and reportedly shot an opponent at one time.

Dr. James Barry, 1862 with his dog Psyche and servant in Jamaica. Image Wikipedia

Professionally, Dr James Barry won great acclaim as a surgeon, entering the history books when he performed the first Caesarian section in Africa in which  both  mother and baby survived. The grateful parents named their child James Barry Munnik Hertzog in his honour. (JBM Hertzog later became  Prime Minister of South Africa from 1924 – 1939). Dr Barry also protested against bad medical practice and the ineffective and often toxic medicines sold in pharmacies. He waged war against poor hygiene standards. His radical treatment for leprosy and tropical diseases transformed the hospitals in which these diseases were treated.

In spite of insubordination and being court martialed, Dr Barry continued to rise up the army ranks.  As Inspector-General of Military Hospitals he spent some months in the Crimea, studying the appalling hospital death rates in Florence Nightingale’s  Scutari hospital. The ‘Lady of the Lamp’ described Barry as ”the most hardened creature I ever met throughout the Army”. It is believed however that this visit led to a radical reform of battlefield medicine.

Forced to retire in 1864, Barry did not receive the customary knighthood that a person of such reputation would have been granted. His years of service in many parts of the Empire were peppered with arrests, demotion, insubordination and unannounced leave, that overshadowed  his medical achievements.

Headstone of Dr James Barry Image

Margaret Ann Bulkley lies buried in Kensal Green cemetery in London. Her gravestone is marked : Dr James Barry Inspector General of Hospitals, Died 26 July 1865, Aged 70 years. She was an extraordinary doctor, the first female graduate from a medical school in Britain who fooled the British Army and the rest of the world for 50 years.

See also my later post:Dr James Barry: A perfect female



The Age

Encyclopedia of World Biography


Filed under Ireland, Irish History

40 responses to “Margaret Ann Bulkley:The extraordinary Doctor James Barry

  1. I thought this was a fascinating story! What an amazing if irascible woman. Thanks for telling us about her.

    • Thank you – a compelling story indeed ! She was an amazing person…I wondered as I was writing about her if she was happy pretending to be male in order to practice her profession.

  2. gender and social norms fascinate me. thank you for this story.

    • Fascinating story – strange how ‘he’ lived his entire life in that identity, and left strict instructions as to how his body was to be handled after death, in the hope of taking the secret to the grave. Glad you enjoyed. Regards Angela

  3. This is amazing! What an incredible woman and what a life she led. Thanks so much for sharing. Cheers, Catherine

  4. Jayakrishnan Thavody

    Thanks for this amazing piece of history!

  5. Lois Warnock

    An interesting story – really amazing. I am a Spiritual Psychic Artist, and Margaret Bulkley came through a drawing of mine, with a nurses cap from that era – which led me to do some research, finding the story of her and James Barry – the connection was incredible and the likeness to ‘Barry’ was so very interesting…

  6. Tobie

    Pse note that the name of the relevant South African Prime Minister is James Barry Munnik Hertzog (not Hertzok).

  7. Su Leslie

    Fascinating story; we women have achieved so much since Margaret/James’ time, but there is still a long way to go. Thanks for sharing this.

    • Su – It is an astonishing story! Her actions appear to have been in direct response to the very thick glass ceiling that existed back then when women could not be admitted to medical school! We have made some headway for sure, and we keep on tapping away! Thank you for visiting and for your comment.

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  9. Reblogged this on A SILVER VOICE FROM IRELAND and commented:

    The most viewed post on this site has been the story of Corkwoman Margaret Ann Bulkley who went through life as Dr James Barry, an eminent physician who rose to the top of the ranks in the British Army becoming Inspector-General of Military Hospitals.

  10. Thank you for that!Love it….

  11. So glad you re-posted this amazing piece. What a woman!

  12. I didn’t know this story at all-I’m so glad you re-posted!

  13. Amazing! One wonders,throughout history how often this masquerade had to occur in order for females to follow a passion,in many fields,that they were drawn to just to appease society! Thankyou. So much for allowing us to appreciate her. Sandra

  14. Sasha Cohen

    I dunno about you guys, but Dr. Barry isn’t a woman. They’re either a trans man or non-binary. Considering that the guy (McKinnon) associated with them said that:
    “it was none of my business whether Dr Barry was a male or a female, and that I thought that he might be neither, viz. an imperfectly developed man…. my own impression was that Dr Barry was a Hermaphrodite. But whether Dr Barry was a male, female, or hermaphrodite I do not know, nor had I any purpose in making the discovery as I could positively swear to the identity of the body as being that of a person whom I had been acquainted with as Inspector-General of Hospitals for a period of years.”
    Please don’t erase non-cis people, even if you think that a ‘woman’ achieved these marvels, because it erases and invalidates trans and non-binary people and their achievements.

    • Hi Sasha. The purpose of the post was to tell the story of a person who was registered as a daughter and raised as a daughter and then progressed through life as a man in the early 19th century. It was not in any way an attempt to ”erase or invalidate’ individuals of any biological type. Thank you for dropping by!

    • Larry

      We cannot ascribe a gender identity to those that we cannot go back and ask. This is an amazing story about a person born with a female body who did what they thought female bodied people couldn’t do.

      “It is thought that General Miranda and Erskine were part of a group that hatched up a plan for Margaret to enter medical school disguised as a man. After qualifying she would be free to go to Venezuela to practice as a female doctor.”

      If she was a woman, this is probably what she wanted… she just got stuck in the role. Being transgender myself, I know what it feels like to stuck in a role. Either way, they are an amazing person.

  15. Cathandra

    If there was speculation that she/ he had a child has anyone been able to track do her/his next of kin. Just nosy and would love to know what happened to the child. Thank you for the interesting piece.

    • Hi Cathandra. I have no idea what became of the child or indeed if relatives were known. There is quite a lot of research on Dr barry, and someone my have the answer. I do agree it would be interesting to know! Thank you for dropping by and glad you enjoyed the piece! – Angela

  16. Melissa

    My interest in Dr Barry came from my reading of the non-fiction book ‘Betsy and the Emperor’ by Anne Whitehead. Whitehead’s book recounts the exile of Napoleon on the island of St Helena. Dr Barry is referred to in this book as he was reported to have successfully treated the son of one of Napoleon’s group. Thanks for providing some more information about Dr Barry. Another reference I will be following up is Stephanie Pain’s ‘The male military surgeon who wasn’t’ New Scientist, March 6, 2008. – Melissa

  17. Powerful, powerful, story … full of meaning, irony. Here in the States, there is a story, that had been agreed upon as a true story … I believe it was in the 1600’s, a cabin boy aboard a ship from France (bound for America) by the name of Jean was in fact a young girl who had been courted by one of the officers on the ship. She was able to sneak on board, stay hidden until they were well on their way. The conclusion is that when the exploration team discovered an area in the Ozarks (mountains), the boy became ill. That is when the officers discovered the true identity of the cabin boy, who was actually a girl. Unfortunately, Jean died, and was buried there. There are some fairly impressive waterfalls that were named after Jean, “Petit Jean Falls”. If you go on line you can read a more accurate account of the story.
    This was a great post, my friend, as usual.

  18. Susan Stewart

    This woman fascinates me. She lived concurrently with Jane Austen, who spent her life wishing for and writing about making the right match. Bulkley grabbed life by the throat and stuffed it in her back pocket. What a contrast.

    • She is fascinating indeed. What a courageous and difficult life to have led. Wouldn’t it be wonderful to have five minutes with her to ask why and how! A real mystery. Thanks you for dropping by!

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  20. Sivan

    Dear Angela. Thank you so much for your very interesting article on Dr. James Barry! For our History of Science research project we are investigating into this case and would like to use your article as a backbone. However, in order to do so, we were wondering whether you could provide us with the academic sources that you made use of? Thank you and kind regards!

    • All sources used in my blogposts are provided under ‘References’ at the end of each article.

      • Sivan

        Thank you! But those are not academic sources. Wikipedia cannot be (officially) used in a paper written for university.

      • All sources used are referenced at the end of the posts. If Wikipedia is used, it is referenced as in this case, where it is one of several sources. With respect, would it not be usual for a university student to carry out their own research and not copy from the work of another, such as this blog? Thank you for dropping by.

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